# Day 05 - Binary Boarding

## Puzzle

You board your plane only to discover a new problem: you dropped your boarding pass! You aren't sure which seat is yours, and all of the flight attendants are busy with the flood of people that suddenly made it through passport control.

You write a quick program to use your phone's camera to scan all of the nearby boarding passes (your puzzle input); perhaps you can find your seat through process of elimination.

Instead of zones or groups, this airline uses binary space partitioning to seat people. A seat might be specified like FBFBBFFRLR, where F means "front", B means "back", L means "left", and R means "right".

The first 7 characters will either be F or B; these specify exactly one of the 128 rows on the plane (numbered 0 through 127). Each letter tells you which half of a region the given seat is in. Start with the whole list of rows; the first letter indicates whether the seat is in the front (0 through 63) or the back (64 through 127). The next letter indicates which half of that region the seat is in, and so on until you're left with exactly one row.

For example, consider just the first seven characters of `FBFBBFFRLR`:

• Start by considering the whole range, rows 0 through 127.
• F means to take the lower half, keeping rows 0 through 63.
• B means to take the upper half, keeping rows 32 through 63.
• F means to take the lower half, keeping rows 32 through 47.
• B means to take the upper half, keeping rows 40 through 47.
• B keeps rows 44 through 47.
• F keeps rows 44 through 45.
• The final F keeps the lower of the two, row 44.

The last three characters will be either L or R; these specify exactly one of the 8 columns of seats on the plane (numbered 0 through 7). The same process as above proceeds again, this time with only three steps. L means to keep the lower half, while R means to keep the upper half.

For example, consider just the last 3 characters of `FBFBBFFRLR`:

• Start by considering the whole range, columns 0 through 7.
• R means to take the upper half, keeping columns 4 through 7.
• L means to take the lower half, keeping columns 4 through 5.
• The final R keeps the upper of the two, column 5.

So, decoding `FBFBBFFRLR` reveals that it is the seat at row 44, column 5.

Every seat also has a unique seat ID: multiply the row by 8, then add the column. In this example, the seat has ID `44 * 8 + 5 = 357`.

Here are some other boarding passes:

• `BFFFBBFRRR`: row 70, column 7, seat ID 567
• `FFFBBBFRRR`: row 14, column 7, seat ID 119.
• `BBFFBBFRLL`: row 102, column 4, seat ID 820.

As a sanity check, look through your list of boarding passes. What is the highest seat ID on a boarding pass?

### Part 2

Ding! The "fasten seat belt" signs have turned on. Time to find your seat.

It's a completely full flight, so your seat should be the only missing boarding pass in your list. However, there's a catch: some of the seats at the very front and back of the plane don't exist on this aircraft, so they'll be missing from your list as well.

Your seat wasn't at the very front or back, though; the seats with IDs +1 and -1 from yours will be in your list.

What is the ID of your seat?

## Solution

`pass-seat` is a subroutine that returns the seat row, column from it's boarding pass. `seat-id` is a subroutine that returns the seat id from it's row & column number.

`pass-seat` works by matching first seven characters which relate to the rows & then it combs over those characters to pin down on the row of this specific boarding pass. Same process is repeated to find the column number.

```# seat-id returns the seat id from row & column number.
sub seat-id (
Int \$row, Int \$column --> Int # seat id will be an integer.
) {
return (\$row.Int * 8) + \$column[0].Int;
}

# pass-seat returns the seat row, column from boarding pass.
sub pass-seat (
Str \$pass --> List # row, column will be List of Int.
) {
if \$pass ~~ /^(<[F B]> ** 7) (<[L R]> ** 3)\$/ -> \$match {
my @rows = [0..127];
my @columns = [0..7];

for \$match[0].comb -> \$char {
@rows = @rows[0 .. * / 2 - 1] if \$char eq 'F';
@rows = @rows[* / 2 .. *] if \$char eq 'B';
}

for \$match[1].comb -> \$char {
@columns = @columns[0 .. * / 2 - 1] if \$char eq 'L';
@columns = @columns[* / 2 .. *] if \$char eq 'R';
}

return @rows[0].Int, @columns[0].Int;
}
}
```

All boarding pass IDs are stored in `@ids` & it's sorted. For part 1 we just print the last index of `@ids` which should give us the highest ID.

```# Get all boarding passes.
my @passes = "input".IO.lines;
my @ids;

for @passes -> \$pass {
my (\$row, \$column) = pass-seat(\$pass);
push @ids, seat-id(\$row, \$column);
}
@ids = @ids.sort;

if \$part == 1 {
say "Part \$part: " ~ @ids[*-1];
} elsif \$part == 2 {
...
}
```

### Part 2

For part 2 we iterate over `@ids` except the last index which is skipped. According to the puzzle, the seat IDs next to ours will be filled. So we check if the next index of `@ids` is current `\$id + 2`. If it is then there is an empty seat between these two IDs & that must be our seat.

```for @ids.kv -> \$key, \$id {
next if \$key == @ids.elems - 1;
next unless @ids[\$key + 1] == \$id + 2;
say "Part \$part: " ~ \$id + 1;
}
```

## Other solution

While solving for Part 2, I encountered an error. It was giving me wrong solution. I ran someone else's code against my input & found that the solution was off by 1. Turns out I forgot to add 1 to `\$id`, I was printing `\$id` initially.

The solution was beautiful & clever, it was ggoebel's solution in advent-of-raku-2020 repository. I'll share the relevant parts here, it's licensed under the Artistic License 2.0.

I liked the first part, they're just replacing "B", "R" with 1 & "F", "L" with 0. When you convert it from decimal to binary it directly translates to the seat ID.

```given \$part {
when 1 {
say \$input.lines.map({ seat_id(\$_) }).max;
}
when 2 {
my @vacant = ( (0..1023) (-) \$input.lines.map({ seat_id(\$_) }) ).keys;
say @vacant.grep({ !( \$_+1 ~~ any @vacant ) and !( \$_-1 ~~ any @vacant) })[0];
}
}

sub seat_id (Str \$code --> Int) {
return +('0b' ~ \$code.trans(<F B R L> => <0 1 1 0>));
}
```

### Update: 2020-12-08

Andinus / / Modified: 2020-12-08 Tue 16:18 Emacs 27.2 (Org mode 9.4.4)